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|Cross-dressing||by Brett Jordan on Flickr|
- The study of genes is called Genetics.
- Scientists study genes to figure out how they work and how they are passed down.
- Genes are the traits that are passed down to us from our parents.
- A trait is a feature that is passed on to offspring.
- An example of a trait is hair color, skin color, eye color, and blood type.
|DNA rendering||by ynse on Flickr|
- DNA is what genes are made of.
- DNA stands for Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid.
- It is said to look like a spiral ladder.
- DNA carries information that is used by your body to be able to function.
- When new cells are formed DNA replication happens. This is when DNA makes a copy of itself.
- When this happens, the DNA splits into two pieces.
- The information in a gene is different from one person to another.
- Genes are passed down from your parents. Your parents got their genes from their parents.
- Different forms of genes are called alleles.
- Alleles control different traits in a person. These traits come from your parents.
- All genes have alleles for the physical traits and behaviors that you inherit.
- Alleles are dominant and recessive.
- Dominant traits are traits that are strong.
- Recessive traits are traits that are weak and are usually hidden.
- A person carries two alleles from each parent for a single trait.
- These two alleles together are called a genotype.
- A phenotype uses a capital letter and a lower case letter to represent a dominant and recessive trait.
- Every type of cell has a different function.
- Genes tell a cell how to function.
- The nucleus of the cell controls 99.9% of your genes.
- Everybody has about 20,000 genes.
- Our bodies are always creating more cells and DNA.
- Cells go through a stage in the cell cycled called Mitosis.
- Mitosis is the process when the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei. A new cell is made.
- Meiosis is the process that a cell goes through in order to produce sex cells with half the number of chromosomes.
- During the process, the chromosome pairs separate and are divided in two different cells.
- The sex cell's then have only half as many chromosomes as the other cells in the organism.
- Since the DNA has replicated, each chromosome has two rods.
- A chromosome contains DNA that carries genetic information.
- Humans normally have 46 chromosomes or two sets of 23.
- You get 23 chromosomes from the egg with comes from your mother, and 23 from the sperm which comes from your father.