The long history of India stretches back to the Indus Valley civilization from 3300-1300 BC. The Indian subcontinent has been home to massive empires and regional kingdoms for hundreds of years, uniting and fragmenting it from time to time. During various periods of resurgence, Indian culture, religion, administration and civilization spread to much of Asia. In recent history, India was under British rule since mid-18th century. It gained independence from Britain in 1947 after a long nationwide freedom struggle.