Ancient Egypt was a civilization that thrived for over 3000 years along the Nile River in northeastern Africa. It was the longest-lived civilization of the ancient world, reigning from 3150 BC to 30 BC. The ancient Egyptians developed a sophisticated writing system, a system of medicine and very effective irrigation and farming techniques. They developed a system of mathematics and advanced construction techniques that helped them build monumental pyramids, temples and other huge structures. Ancient Egyptians left a huge cultural legacy for the whole world.